Thursday, February 21, 2019

ክብርት ፕሬዝደንቷ በካይሮ

                                                 
የፌዴራል ጠቅላይ ፍርድ ቤት ፕሬዝደንት ክብርት ወ/ሮ መዓዛ አሸናፊ በግብጽ ካይሮ በሚደረገው 3ተኛው የአፍሪካ የጠቅላይ ፍርድ ቤቶች እና የህገመንግስት ፍርድ ቤቶች ዓመታዊ ኮንፍረንስ ላይ ተሳትፈዋል፡፡ ንግግርም አድርገዋል፡፡
ኮንፈረንሱ በግብጽ የህገመንግስት ፍርድ ቤት በየዓመቱ የሚዘጋጅና የአፍሪካ ሃገራት ጠቅላይ ፍርድ ቤት ፕሬዝደንቶች የሚሳተፉበት እንደሆነም የተገኘው መረጃ ይጠቁማል፡፡ በአፍሪካ በቅርቡ የተሾሙትን ክብርት ወ/ሮ መዓዛ አሸናፊን ጨምሮ 6 ሴት የጠቅላይ ፍርድ ቤት ፕሬዝደንቶች እንዳሉ መረጃው ያመለክታል፡፡ (SOURCE - https://twitter.com/ashenafi_mea…/status/1097384708810383360

Monday, February 4, 2019

Force Majeure and Hardship under UNCISG and Ethiopian Contract law (By our professional guest author Yidnekachew Tadele - LL.B., LL.M (Federalism Studies) and LL.M Candidate (International Business and Investment Law) Honourable yidnekachew is currently working as a judge at Addis Ababa City Appelate Court.





Introduction
The article that is entitled Force Majeure and Hardship under UNCISG and Ethiopian law discusses only about UNCISG and Ethiopian law. The paper doesn’t discuss about other UN convection or other countries’ laws.
The article has five parts. The first part discuss about the general concept of force majeure and hardships. The second part discusses about the similarity and differences of force majeure and hardship.  The Third one discusses about force majeure and hardship under UNCISG. The fourth part discusses about force majeure and hardship under Ethiopian law. Under the fifth and the last part the article the writer concludes the paper and gives some recommendations. 
1-The general concept of force majeure and hardship
A basic and universally accepted principle of contract law is "pacta sunt servanda." This principle means that each party to an agreement is responsible for its non-execution, even if the cause of the failure is beyond his power and was not or could not be foreseen at the time of signing the agreement.[1] The principle reflects natural justice and economic requirements because it binds a person to their promises and protects the interests of the other party. But the concept of force majeure and hardship is the exception of this principle.[2]
Force majeure is a French term that literally means "greater force." It is related to the concept of an act of God, an event for which no party can be held accountable, such as a hurricane or a tornado. Force majeure also encompasses human actions, however, such as armed conflict. [3]
Generally speaking, for events to constitute force majeure, they must be unforeseeable, external to the parties of the contract, and unavoidable (irresistible). These concepts are defined and applied differently by different jurisdictions. So force majeure is generally intended to include occurrences beyond the reasonable control of a party,
Hardship in a contract is intended to cover cases in which unforeseen events occur in such a way that they fundamentally alter the equilibrium of a contract resulting in an excessive burden being placed on one of the parties involved. Hardship typically recognized that parties must perform their contractual obligation even if events have rendered performance more onerous than would reasonably have been anticipated at the time of the conclusion of the contract.
Hardship clause is a clause in a contract that is intended to cover cases in which unforeseen events occur that fundamentally alter the equilibrium of a contract resulting in an excessive burden being placed on one of the parties involved.[4]
Hardship clauses typically recognize that parties must perform their contractual obligations even if events have rendered performance more onerous than would reasonably have been anticipated at the time of the conclusion of the contract.
However, if continued performance has become excessively burdensome because of an event beyond a party's reasonable control that it could not reasonably have been expected to have taken into account, the clause can obligate the parties to negotiate alternative contractual terms to allow for the consequences of the event reasonably.[5]

Saturday, February 2, 2019

Upcoming Post


      Force Majeure and Hardship under UNCISG and Ethiopian Contract Law (By our professional guest author Yidnekachew Tadele - LL.B., LL.M (Federalism Studies) and LL.M Candidate (International Investment Law)


Saturday, January 26, 2019

የወንጀለኛ መቅጫ ሥነ-ሥርዓት ህግ ቁጥር 145 ተፈጻሚ መሆን ያለበት በምን ሁኔታ ነዉ ? ( በበረከት ሰይፉ )



                             1. መግቢያ

        በመደበኛዉ[1] የወንጀል ሙግት ሂደት ዓቃቤ ህግ ረቺ ለመሆን የሚያበቃዉ የአስረጂነት መመዘኛ (standard of proof) ከምክንታዊ ጥርጣሬ በላይ (beyond reasonable doubt) ወይም ግልጽና አሳማኝ (clear and convincing) ወይስ ከተጠቀሱት ዉጪ የሚለዉ በፌዴራል ፍርድ ቤቶች[2] ለዓመታት ወጥ አቋም ያልተያዘበት ይልቁንም ጉራማይሌ መሆኑን በተለያዩ መዛግብት ከተሰጡና እየተሰጡ ካሉ ትዕዛዛት መገንዘብ ይቻላል፡፡
ተግባራዊ መሆን ያለበት የአስረጂነት መመዘኛ (standard of proof) የትኛዉ ነዉ ? ካሉት ከአማራጮቹ መካከል አንደኛዉን በሥራ ላይ ለማዋል የሚያስችለን ህግ ወይም ፍልስፍና ምንድን ነዉ ? የሚለዉ የዚህ ጽሁፍ መሰረታዊ ዓላማ አይደለም፡፡ የትኛዉንም አማራጭ ብንከተል ግን የማስረዳት ሸክም ያለበት ወገን ያቀረበዉ ማስረጃ ያስረዳል ተብሎ የቀረበበትን ፍሬ ነገር መኖር ወይም አለመኖር[3] አስመልክቶ የማይሆን ከሚባል ይልቅ ይሆናል በሚባል ደረጃ (more likely than not) የማስረዳት ግዴታዉን መወጣት አለበት፡፡ ይህን ለማድረግ ዓቃቤ ህግ አሉኝ የሚላቸዉን የሰነድ ማስረጃዎች የማቅረብ፤ ምስክሮችም እንዳሉ ማሰማት ግድ[4] ይሆናል፡፡
የወንጀል ክስ የቀረበበት ሰዉ ፍርድ ቤት ከቀረበ በኋላ ክሱ ደርሶት፤ መቃወሚያ እንዳለ እልባት ተሰጥቶ ተከሳሹ የእምነት ክህደት ቃሉን ሲጠየቅ ክዶ ከተከራከረ ዓቃቤ ህግ ክሱን ይከፍታል፡፡[5] በክሱ የማስረጃ ዝርዝር ላይ ምስክሮችን የተጠቀሱ እንደሆነ ይጠራሉ፡፡ ዓቃቤ ህግ ምስክሮቹን እንዲያቀርብ ታዞ በተለያዩ ምክንያቶች ሳያገኛቸዉ ሲቀር በወ/መ/ሥ/ሥ/ህ/ቁ 30 (1) መሰረት ለፖሊስ የሰጡት ቃል በተጠቃሹ ህግ ቁጥር 145 መሰረት ፍርድ ቤት በማስረጃነት ይያያዝልን (ይታይልን) የሚል አቤቱታ ማቅረብ (በሁሉም ዓቃብያነ ህጎች ባይሆንም) የተለመደ ነዉ፡፡ ለዚህ ዓይነቱ አቤቱታ በአብዛኛዉ የሚጠቀሰዉ ምክንያት ምስክሩ/ሮቹ አድራሻ ስለሌላቸዉ ሊገኙ አልቻሉም ወይም ከሃገር ወጥተዋል የሚሉ ናቸዉ፡፡
በዚህ መልኩ የሚቀርብን አቤቱታ አብዛኛዉ ችሎቶች በመቀበል ምስክሩ/ሮቹ ለፖሊስ የሰጡትን ቃል የዓቃቤ ህግ ማስረጃ አካል አድርገዉ የሚወስዱ ሲሆን ጥቂት ችሎቶች (ዳኞች) ደግሞ በዚህ መልኩ የሚቀርብ አቤቱታን ዉድቅ ሲያደርጉ ይስተዋል፡፡ የጉዳዩ አወዛጋቢነት በዳኞችና ዓቃብያነ ህጎች መካከል መካከል ሳይገደብ በወንጀል ፍትህ አስተዳደር ዘርፉ ተዋናይ የሆኑ ጠበቆችን (ተከላካይ ጠበቆችን ጨምሮ)፣ የህግ መምህራንን … ወ.ዘ.ተ የሚያከራክር ሆኗል፡፡

Sunday, January 20, 2019

Next Upcoming Post

የወ/መ/ስ/ስ/ሕ/ቁ 145 ዓላማውና  አተገባበሩ ላይ (በተጋባዥ ባለሙያ)

Monday, December 11, 2017

Towards a Comprehensive Prosecution Service in Ethiopia: Noting the New Developments by Leake Mekonen Tesfay


Abstract  Although Ethiopia’s public prosecution is a recent development, continuous changes have been made since the first public prosecution department was established. While the prosecution service has been wavering between centralized prosecution department at times and specialized prosecution institutions in another, a new comprehensive prosecution department – the Federal Attorney General has been recently established in the federal government taking almost all prosecution powers to it. This article briefly reviews the historical development of the prosecution department, the ups and downs between centralized and specialized prosecution institutions and the new developments related to the establishment of the Federal Attorney General as a comprehensive prosecution institution. Key Words Public Prosecution, Specialized Prosecution Institutions, Centralized Prosecution, Ethiopia

Monday, October 16, 2017

A point about some traffic police corruption



            Our traffic police are not clean handed. This doesn’t mean all traffic police are corrupt. There are many ethical and professional and country-loving traffic police as opposed to the corrupt ones. I have been traveling from Addis to the South region and back to Addis many times. It is a very common practice for the drivers to give Birr 50 or 100 to the traffic police to have a ‘safe’ pass besides overloading passengers,missing dispatch paper(‘mewicha’),driving above the speed limit, driving a technically deficient car, overpricing the transportation fee above the tariff,etc. These faults of the driver are ignored as seen in return to the Birr 50 or 100 bribe.The drivers have told me that the traffic police do collect the money from each public transport car. What an ashaming practice! If our law enforcement organs are corrupt, then who can enforce the law? Will these corrupt ones will enforce it? No. A serious measure has to be taken on this problem. Let you share us your opinions on what measure should be taken to get rid of this problem.

Tuesday, October 10, 2017

የግብር ከፋዮች የሽያጭ መመዝገቢያ መሳሪያ በመጠቀም ደረሰኝ የመቁረጥ ግዴታ፡ ኣጭር ዳሰሳ ( ለኣከ መኮነን ተስፋይ -የፌዴራል የመጀመሪያ ደረጃ ፍርድ ቤት ዳኛ)




1.   መግቢያ                  
          መንግስታት ስራቸውን ለማከናወን የሚያስፈልጋቸውን ገንዘብ ለማመንጨት ግብር ይጥላሉ፣ ይሰበስባሉ፡፡ ግብር የሚጣለውም ህግ የማውጣት ስልጣን ባለው የመንግስት ኣካል በተደነገገ ህግ መሰረት ነው፡፡ መንግስታት ግብር በሚጥሉበትና በሚሰበስቡበት ጊዜ ታድያ በመንግስትና በግብር ከፋዩ ህብረተሰብ መካከል ግጭት/ኣለመስማማት እንዳይከሰት በኣንድ በኩል የግብር ሰብሳቢው የመንግስት ኣካል ስልጣንና ተግባራት እንዲሁም ግዴታዎች ምንድን ናቸው? በሌላም በኩል የግብር ከፋዮች መብቶችና ግዴታዎችስ ምንድን ናቸው? የሚለው ተለይቶ መታወቁ ጠቃሚ ነው፡፡      

Monday, October 2, 2017

የፍትሐብሔር የችሎት ሂደት በቅደም ተከተል


የፌዴራል ፍ/ቤቶች ችሎቶች አንድን የፍትሐብሔር ቀጥታ ክስ ሲመለከቱ የሥነ ሥርዓት ሕጉን በመንተራስ የሚተገብሯቸው ዋና ዋና ተግባራት 1.ፍ/ቤቱ የቀረበለትን ጉዳይ ለመዳኘት ሥልጣን ያለው መሆኑን መመርመር፣ 2.ጉዳዩ የክስ ምክንያት ያለው መሆኑን መመርመር፣ 3.መዝገቡን መርምሮ ተከሣሽ መልስ ሊያቀረብ የሚገባ መሆንና አለመሆኑን መመርመር ፣ 4.የክስ መቃወሚያ ካለ መስማት፣ 5.በመቃወሚያ ላይ ብይን መስጠት፣ 6.በፍሬ ጉዳይ ላይ ክስ መስማት፣ 7.ምስክር መስማት፣ 8.ውሣኔ/ ፍርድ መስጠት፣ ከላይ የተጠቀሱት ሂደቶች በቀላል፣ መካከለኛና ውስብስብ የፍትሐብሔር ጉዳዮች የሚተገበሩ ሊሆኑ ይችላሉ፡፡ / ምንጭ ፡-ለውይይት የቀረበ የዳኝነት አገልግሎት አሰጣጥ ስታንዳርድ 2ዐዐ7/

Tuesday, September 26, 2017

Forgery is a real threat to our Justice System


Nowadays,documents submitted to employers as evidence of education and work experience,driving licenses,ID cards,certificates of ownership,business licenses,etc are prepared in a forged way.Such forged documents are often submitted to courts and administrative tribunals as evidence resulting in miscarriage of justice.So,all of us have to fight against this threat to our justice system.The Federal Police forensic directorate documents investigation department is making a great contribution in fighting forgery. Each and every one of us should also contribute our share in fighting forgery.Otherwise,injustice will triumph over justice.What is your opinion on the issue?

Friday, September 22, 2017

ከመቀጠር ከሚገኝ ገቢ ግብር ስሌት (tax rate of income gained from employment )


በሐምሌ/2008 እንዳዲስ በወጣው በአዋጅ ቁጥር 979/2008 መሰረት ከመቀጠር ከሚገኝ ገቢ ግብር ስሌት የሚሰላው እንደሚከተለው ነው፡፡ (As per income tax proclamation no 979/2016,the tax rate for income gained from employment looks like this.)

Tuesday, September 19, 2017

Unsolicited Mobile Text Messages

        Day in and day out,a lot of text messages pop into our mobile phones. These are not from family or friends. Some of the text messages are sent from the telecom operator ,Ethiotelecom;Others are sent from government offices to convey a certain message and others are sent from organizations that run ads.,etc...Whoever is the sender,there is no a request given by us to get these messages. We are rarely asked whether or not we are interested to receive such messages.Nor anyone of us has given permission to the senders to send messages to our phones. In my opinion,our phones are ours;your phone is yours.So sending unsolicited text messages may amount to infringement of our privacy rights something like somebody entering our house without permission.The problem related to this issue is that there is no a clear law which directly regulates such privacy issues. I think it needs regulation.What is your opinion on the issue?

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